Looking back through history of mankind the most commonly used material, which is still often used is wood. Other materials have changed over time to be changed and technology, so today we have a very broad and rich Bidder material of which can be manufactured furniture. In this chapter we will talk about a tree or on any existing matereijalima, but will talk only about those materials that COMO used in its production, because with these materials we have experience and we kopetetni enough to speak about them. Before we say anything specifically about the very materials should be noted that in our region offers a plate material of a dozen foreign manufacturers, different quality, naravno i cena. Domestic producers almost no. There are several companies engaged in the production of these materials, but it is still not at a satisfactory level.
In a word these materials can be called "core boards" because all of these materials are produced in the form of plates of certain sizes. Since squamous matter which COMO used in its production, we can allocate:
- laminated particleboard – univer
Particleboard is made of small pieces (ivera) different types of wood (beech, grab, lipa…) which are connected to each other by synthetic binders under pressure in three layers. Inner layer is larger than the outer layers of wood chips from smaller slivers. This chipboard is also called "raw chipboard" and as such it has no use in the manufacture of furniture, but requires refinement that. coating the surface or the appearance of enriched chipboards this process is rarely used.
Refined Plywood is (as well as the name says,) particleboard, which is coated with melamine foils. Liners can be jednobijne or wood designs, stone, marble… surface of the plywood is resistant to acid, Moisture, Pulmonary, Scratch, Shock… In addition to its superior properties it is also very decorative and ready for processing (cutting) without any special preparation. Chipboard and raw and oplemenjne are made in several different dimensions. The most commonly for the manufacture of furniture in Then use the panel measuring about 2750×2070 (depending of the manufacturer) thick 10, 18 i 25mm. Melamine foil which is coated particle board from 80 do 110 g/m2.
Purpose: for the production of furniture elements
Treatment: cutting: rectilinear or curvilinear.
1.3 MDF – Medium Density Fibreboard
Material with a bit culations popular name in our region - MDF. It is a medium-dense fiber boards made mainly of beech, spruce, fir wood and with the addition of polymeric resin. Unlike chipboard MDF has a homogeneous and extremely fine texture, so it has a higher hardness and more resistant to moisture and can be processed and the traditional way (as tree). MDF there is raw and refined white-sided foil. In both cases MDF is not a decorative surface with the required finishing (painting, furniranje, laminating). Similar to the plywood boards are MDF measuring approx 2750x1740mm (depending of the manufacturer) and thickness that are used in the manufacture of furniture are 6, 8, 10, 16, 19, 25mm. Plates of MDF and less thickness 6, 8 i 10 mm mogu se bend to a certain extent, so they are mainly used for making some details on curved surfaces.
Purpose: mostly for the production of furniture elements - fronts combined with univer, rarely for the production of complete furniture
Treatment: Cutting rectilinear or curvilinear and the traditional way (as tree)
Dorada: painting, veneering or coating PVC film
In our country better known as hardboard. HDF has a similar structure to the MDF or the compressed higher pressure, so that it has a higher hardness. In the manufacture of furniture is mostly used HDF 3mm, raw or simply enriched with melamine foil. Like other flat materials supplied in sheets measuring approx 2750x1750mm.
Purpose: for the production of furniture elements (mainly for the backing and the details) u kombimaciji sa univerom ili MDF-om.
Treatment: cutting: rectilinear or curvilinear
Dorada: requires no modification
Furnir je “list” drveta debljine oko 1mm. It comes in rolls of various widths. Purpose: Standalone has no use, exclusively used for processing, a process called "veneering". Mainly veneer MDF, rarely chipboard. Veneer involves bonding veneer to the board pressure and temperature, after which the panel is ready for further processing.
Treatment: Gluing on MDF or particle board
Dorada: painting - painting – traditional (as tree)
Worktops are similar in composition Univer but are divided by size and foils which are coated. Thickness worktops ranges up to 80mm dimensions of approximately 600×5000 mm depending on the producers, and the purpose. Foil which are coated worktop are quite resistant than films which is lined chipboard therefore the worktop quite resistant, primarily to moisture and wear. Unlike chipboard with worktops at least one side (kant) the coated foil that. Is complementary to the desktop board.
Purpose: as the title of the conclusion, used for working surfaces, most often in the kitchens but often in bathrooms, I ojekti to ugostiteljsk, laboratories…
2.0. Processing and finishing sheet material
2.1. Pravolinijsko sečenje
As much as this process zavučao easy in practice is not so. That is the process of cutting is not complicated or flat materials because of its structure require special cutting machine with more testers (predrezač i rezač). Only on such machines can get proper undamaged edge. In addition to high-quality cut is necessary to ensure the accuracy of cut (angles and dimensions).
2.2. Curve cuts
Curved cuts are completely different from pravlolinijskog. This type of cutting is performed on CNC machine and a blade used in the milling cutter that moves towards written program. On this machine, in addition to curved cuts are made and the "pattern" in the MDF-in and it is possible to drill holes.
Edge banding represents the process of gluing tape on Kant (sides) cut pieces. Najčešće se kantije univer, rarely MDF (only if the veneering). Strips that are glued alongside aesthetic and have a protective function (preventing the penetration of moisture and dirt in the material). There are several types of tape, najčešće u upotrebi su melaminske i ABS-trake. Melamine edges are the same as the foil at chipboard and ABS edges are 2mm thick and are much more resistant, primarily to shock, od melaminskih traka. Kant can be beautiful and wooden slats but it is less common. Banding is done on a machine that is commonly referred to as Kanterica. Banding can also be done "by hand" but the ultimate outcome of such nyomtatás is far worse than the edge on the machine because hand can never achieve a constant temperature and not enough pressure.
Painting or varnishing is already well known to be a process that essentially nothing has changed but because the colors and varnishes are changing day to day. So now we have to offer over 1600 color shades that can be: mat, semi gloss, sheen, high gloss. As the only disadvantage of this process could be set aside as it painted elements have relatively low abrasion resistance. Therefore not suitable for work surfaces.
2.5. 3D Lamination - Application PVC film
3A laminating process that revolutionized the production of furniture in the past few years. The process is to apply (Bonding) PVC folije na MDF-u vakum ili membranskom presom. It is possible to almost any form of applied film.
The advantage of this process in relation to the painting is reflected in the fact that reduces the time of making the film itself is quite resistant to abrasion and impact resistant. As a small disadvantage in this process in relation to the painting could be to set aside for now a relatively small number of designs foil (about 100) but that number is growing by the day.